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Iran Nuclear Deal Analysis

Highlights of the Iran nuclear deal framework
International negotiators on 2 April 2015 unveiled the framework for a deal that aims to curb Iran's nuclear program. Here’s a look at some of the key points, according to a fact sheet released by international negotiators in Switzerland: 
• Iran would go from having 19,000 centrifuges installed today to about 6,100 under the agreement, a reduction of approximately two-thirds, with 5,060 of those enriching uranium for 10 years.
• Iran agreed to convert its facility at Fordo so that it is no longer used to enrich uranium, or used for the research and development associated with uranium, for at least 15 years. Almost two-thirds of Fordo’s centrifuges and infrastructure would be removed, and all remaining centrifuges and related infrastructure would be monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The facility, which would also not have any fissile material for that period, would be used “for peaceful purposes only,” including nuclear, physics and technology research.
• Iran would enrich uranium only at the Natanz facility for 10 years.
• Iran agreed to not build any facilities that aim to enrich uranium for 15 years.
• The “breakout” timeline for Iran to acquire enough fissile material for one nuclear weapon — currently assessed to be two to three months — would be extended to at least a year, for a duration of 10 years.
• The IAEA would have regular access to all of Iran’s nuclear facilities, including Natanz and Fordo, and would use “the most up-to-date, modern monitoring technologies.”
• Iran would be required to grant access to the IAEA to investigate “suspicious” sites or allegations of covert facilities for enrichment, conversion, centrifuge production or yellowcake production.
• A heavy water research reactor in Arak would be redesigned and rebuilt so it does not produce weapons grade plutonium -- instead, so it can support peaceful nuclear research and radioisotope production. The original core at the reactor would be destroyed or removed from the country, and Iran would ship all of its spent fuel from the reactor out of the country for the reactor’s lifetime. Iran would not build any additional heavy water reactors for 15 years.
• If Iran “verifiably” abides by the commitments, U.S. and E.U. nuclear-related sanctions would be suspended, but would resume immediately if Iran failed to fulfill its end of the agreement.
• All past U.N. Security Council resolutions regarding Iran’s nuclear program would be lifted once Iran addresses all key concerns. 
• U.S. sanctions on Iran for terrorism, human rights abuses, and ballistic missiles would remain in place under the deal.
New York Times

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